My recently-married daughter, having attended TAU, the Technion and MIT, is now writing her Master's thesis in bio-science.
While males continue their post-grad pursuits uninterrupted, females reach the age where their bio-clock forces a choice between doctorate and family. The doctorate has to be deferred to later in life.
Most women are, thankfully and valiantly, unwilling to forego family for a career. To level the field for them to become professors will require "bring your infant to work" facilities.