The law was approved by 56 Knesset members and opposed by nine. Two MKs abstained in the vote.
The vote took place a week after the Knesset's Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee recommended that the law be extended by five years.
Following the vote, the Meretz faction announced that "this is a shameful surrender by the government to the haredi parties, although it is completely clear that this law does not hold any opportunity for equality in terms of military service.
"This government, which is trying so hard to weaken the High Court, is now asking the same High Court to do its unpleasant job and help continue its paralysis in the face of the haredim."
The faction also announced that four of its members plan to petition the High Court against the law.
The government voted in favor of extending the law in February. Twenty-one ministers voted in favor of the extension, while Justice Minister Daniel Friedmann was the only one who abstained.
The Tal Law was approved by the Knesset about five years ago. According to the law, 18-year-old yeshiva students will be allowed to postpone their military service every year until the age of 22, when they will be allowed to work or study for a year outside the yeshiva without joining the army.
After that year, each yeshiva student can choose between returning to the yeshiva or joining the workforce and serving in the army in accordance with his marital status, or perform national service for a year and a half.