In a report published in the American journal Environmental Science & Technology, the team estimates that Americans eat and breathe between 70,000 and 121,000 particles per year, with drinking bottled water adding a substantial amount to this figure.
These numbers are likely to be low estimates, the researchers say, with extremely grave and under-researched consequences.
The minuscule pieces come from the decay of plastic products, including clothes.
Despite growing awareness of the dangers of plastic for the environment and human health, human consumption of plastics remains high.
In Israel, the use of disposable plastic is common, and the country lags behind in terms of raising awareness of disposal techniques.
With whole communities affected by strict dietary laws requiring different cutlery for different meals, kosher plastic cutlery is often preferred, even in public institutions forced to follow kosher rules.