In a speech to French ambassadors in Paris, Macron said "Europe cannot rely on the United States only for its security. It's up to us to meet our responsibilities and guarantee our security, and therefore European sovereignty."
He said discussions on defense cooperation should be extended to all European countries and Russia, on condition that progress is made with Moscow on the fighting in eastern Ukraine between the government and Russia-backed separatists. He did not elaborate.
France is pushing for the full implementation of the 2015 Minsk peace agreement that was sponsored by France and Germany to settle the conflict in Ukraine, which has killed at least 10,000 people since 2014.
Macron's speech aimed to set out the roadmap of French diplomacy for the next year.
Since his election in May 2017, the 40-year-old leader has called for a more integrated European Union, with a common European defense budget and security doctrine.
In November, EU countries officially launched a new era in defense cooperation with a program of joint military investment and project development aimed at helping the EU confront its security challenges.
Twenty-three of the EU's 28 member nations signed up to the process, known as permanent structured cooperation, or PESCO.
Britain, which is leaving the EU in 2019, and Denmark, which has a defense opt-out, were among those not taking part.