The suspicions against Danny Dankner, who served as the major bank's chairman between 2007 and 2009, center on the lender's dealings with Turkey's BankPozitif.
Hapoalim acquired a controlling stake in the Turkish lender in 2005, and Dankner is suspected of personally benefiting from the deal.
Dankner was forced to step down under unprecedented pressure from the Bank of Israel, in a rare public spat with Hapoalim's owner, billionaire Shari Arison, who lined up behind him.
The central bank did not explain why it wanted Dankner removed.
Dankner's lawyers - Yossi Benkel, Navot Tel-Zur and Ruth Litvak – said that he had expressed confidence he would be acquitted "once this unnecessary procedure comes to an end."