Sderot Mayor Eli Moyal submitted his resignation to the interior minister Wednesday, citing the ongoing security crisis in town as the main motive for the move.
A salvo of 18 rockets hit the southern town earlier, injuring several residents.
"This was a necessary move, and perhaps the only thing that could persuade the government to do something," Moyal told Ynet. "I have been mulling this decision since the morning, while Qassam rockets kept falling on the town."
Moyal explained that he no longer felt he could bear the responsibility for the safety of Sderot's residents, especially after the army decided Tuesday to cancel the emergency state previously declared in the region.
A Qassam barrage hit the western Negev Wednesday, as Palestinians fired 18 Qassam rockets at Sderot. One girl was lightly wounded in the leg by shrapnel, and several other people suffered shock.
Both the Islamic Jihad's al-Quds Brigades and the Popular Resistance Committees' Salah al-Din Brigades claimed responsibility for the rockets, which landed – all but one – in open areas.
The salvo followed Tuesday's IDF operation in Gaza, which according to Palestinian sources left six dead.
Following the attacks, Magen David Adom emergency services raised the alert level in town to the maximum, and doubled the number of ambulances and ICU vehicles on call.