The display, billed as the world's first on Herod, includes a reconstructed tomb and sarcophagus of Herod, known for huge building projects, including the biblical Jewish Second Temple in Jerusalem.
The exhibit features about 30 tons of findings from his lavish palaces.
Israel Museum director James Snyder said Tuesday it's the museum's largest and most expensive archaeological project to date. The exhibit opens February 12.
Palestinians object to the exhibit because it displays artifacts from West Bank sites. Archaeology official Hamdan Taha says the project was not coordinated with the Palestinians and violates international law.
The museum says it will return the antiquities after the exhibit closes in nine months.