The US Mission to the United Nations said it wanted the UN's most powerful body to discuss Sunday's launch of a medium-range missile.
White House Press Secretary Sean Spicer said earlier that he did not know the "exact nature" of the test and expected to have more information later.
A defense official said the missile test ended with a "failed" re-entry into the earth's atmosphere. The official had no other details, including the type of missile. The official was not authorized to discuss the matter and spoke on condition of anonymity.
Iran is the subject of a United Nations Security Council resolution prohibiting tests of ballistic missiles designed to deliver a nuclear warhead. As part of the 2015 nuclear deal, the UN ban was prolonged by eight years, although Iran has flaunted the restriction.
State Department spokesman Mark Toner said the US was looking into whether the ballistic missile test violates the US Security Council resolution.
"When actions are taken that violate or are inconsistent with the resolution, we will act to hold Iran accountable and urge other countries to do so as well," Toner said.
Sen. Bob Corker, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, condemned Iran for the missile test.
"No longer will Iran be given a pass for its repeated ballistic missile violations, continued support of terrorism, human rights abuses and other hostile activities that threaten international peace and security," Corker, a Republican from Tennessee, said in a written statement.
Netanyahu mentioned the incident himself earlier that day on his Facebook page. He wrote in Hebrew, "Over the weekend, Iran launched another ballistic missile. This is a blatant violation of the Security Council's decision. I will be meeting with President Trump in Washington soon. I will bring up the need for renewing the sanction against Iran, sanctions against ballistic missiles and sanctions against terrorism, in addition to handling this whole failed agreement."
He added, "Iranian aggression cannot be left without a response."
Israel's Permanent Representative to the United Nations, Amb. Danny Danon, discussed the launch and stressed that Iran once again contravened the UN Security Council's resolution and exposed its true intentions.
Danon added that the international committee can no longer bury its head in the sand and ignore Iranian aggressions. He urged the UN to act immediately against Iranian actions that put both Israel and entire Middle East at risk.
According to UN Security Council Resolution 1929: "Iran is prohibited from undertaking any activity related to ballistic missiles capable of carrying nuclear weapons and States are required to take all necessary measure to prevent the transfer of related technology or technical assistance."