An aviation official said President Abdel-Fattah al-Sisi greeted Putin, accompanied by several high-level Russian officials and government ministers, at Cairo International Airport.
Al-Sisi's office earlier said that both leaders would attend a ceremony Tuesday where several agreements would be signed, although it did not elaborate on the nature of the agreements.
From the airport, the two leaders were scheduled to go to the Cairo Opera House, where the symphony was to play excerpts of "Swan Lake" and the opera "Aida."
Russian flags and posters of Putin's face have popped up across the capital, welcoming him to Egypt. The state-run Al Ahram daily newspaper ran a weekend profile of him, complete with photos showing Putin shirtless and holding various weapons, headlined "A hero of our times."
Putin last visited Egypt in 2005, when long-term autocrat Hosni Mubarak was still in power. Mubarak was toppled in the country's 2011 revolt.
Al-Sisi visited Russia last August to focus on boosting trade and military cooperation. Both countries have signaled their desire to expand ties. Following those talks, Putin said they agreed to expand military cooperation.
Putin said Russia started supplying weapons to Egypt after signing a memorandum in March, but gave no details.