The committee nonetheless approved 11 billion euros of purchases for the armed forces, including five corvette warships for two billion euros.
The German Defense Ministry had warned against delays, saying the purchases were urgently needed to modernize an army weakened by years of spending cuts.
Christine Lambrecht, a lawmaker from the centre-left Social Democratic Party (SPD), had earlier said that the budget committee would delay a decision on the whole funding package as her party needed more time for consultations.
German Defense Minister Ursula von der Leyen was eager to get the requests approved before a Sept. 24 general election as delays could further hobble a military trying to rebuild after years of post-Cold War cuts and prepare for added responsibilities.
The SPD are junior coalition partners of German Chancellor Angela Merkel's CDU and their Bavaria-based sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU).
After the postponement, Von der Leyen told ARD television that the procurement of the Israeli drones, favored by the military because they are compatible with models they already own, was still under discussion.
Some SPD lawmakers have reservations about leasing Heron TP drones from Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI), which can be armed and used to protect soldiers serving in Afghanistan and Mali.
The higher court in Duesseldorf in May dismissed a legal challenge by US weapons maker General Atomics to Germany's plans to lease the drones from rival IAI. But the court this month said it had put the deal on hold again as it considers a complaint by General Atomics against its decision.
Some SPD lawmakers want the budget committee to delay a decision on the deal until a final court decision.
Germany already has three earlier versions of the Heron reconnaissance drone, which are deployed in Afghanistan. They are maintained by Airbus and cannot be armed.