Pence was scheduled to spend two-to-three days in the country following Trump's declaration recognizing Jerusalem as Israel's capital.
Pence was scheduled to speak at the Knesset, meet with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and President Reuven Rivlin and visit the Yad VaShem Holocaust Museum.
He was also scheduled to light a Hanukkah candle during a private visit to the Western Wall—without being accompanied by an Israeli official—as the Trump family did during their visit of Israel.
The Palestinians, meanwhile, have decided to boycott Pence's visit in protest of Trump's declaration.
Pence, a devout Christian, also asked to visit the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, but the Muslim custodian holding the key to the church refused to welcome the American vice president in protest of Trump's declaration.
Pence was one of the American officials pushing Trump to recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital.