The Jewish man, who was wearing a kippa, filmed the assault on his phone.
The video shows the Muslim attacker hitting him with a belt and yelling "Jew" at him in Arabic.
Passersby called the police, which launched an investigation into the incident.
The Jewish man had to seek medical treatment at the hospital.
"It is incomprehensible to see a young Jewish man attacked on the street in an established area of Berlin, just because he is identified as a Jew," said Levy Salomon, the spokesman of the Jewish Forum for Democracy and Against anti-Semitism. "It shows Jews are not safe even here. We don't need any more speeches, we need actions."