"The atmosphere for the work, life and livelihood of the people must be secure," Khamenei said in a meeting with judiciary officials, according to his site. "And the judiciary must confront those who disrupt economic security."
Protests broke out in Tehran and other cities on Monday and Tuesday as merchants complained about the sharp fall in the value of the national currency.
Earlier Wednesday, a senior Revolutionary Guards commander said the "satanic triangle" of the United States, Israel and Saudi Arabia were trying to weaken Iran, according to Fars News.
General Yahya Rahim-Safavi, who is also a senior advisor to Iran's supreme leader, said it was the duty of all Iranians to help the government overcome economic problems.
A senior US state department official said on Tuesday that Washington had told its allies to halt Iranian oil imports.
"It is all of our duty to work together to help the respected government and other governmental branches in solving the economic problems," Rahim-Savari said.
"We must neutralize the plans of the enemy for an economic war and psychological operations."
Protests broke out in Tehran bazaar and in smaller cities on Monday and Tuesday as merchants complained about the sharp fall in the value of the national currency.
Videos posted on social media showed police firing tear gas to disperse protesters in Tehran. Reuters could not independently verify their authenticity.