The protesters outside the Tel Aviv Museum of Art on Saturday also called for protecting Israel's democratic identity against government overreach.
The demonstrators say Netanyahu's incoming coalition is pushing for legislation to shield him from prosecution and is looking to restrict the power of the Supreme Court.
Yair Lapid of Israel's opposition Blue and White party compared Netanyahu's efforts to consolidate his power to Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan. Addressing Netanyahu, Lapid said: "We won't have a Turkish dictator. We won't allow it."
Blue and White leader Benny Gantz, leader of Labor Party Avi Gabbay and Hadash-Ta'al leader Ayman Odeh all spoke during the event.
The Likud party issued a statement calling the protest a “joke.”
"Terrorist supporter Ayman Odeh gives speeches with the blessing of Benny Gantz and Yair Lapid, while a former prisoner Ehud Olmert demonstrates 'against corruption,’ the party said in a statement.
Netanyahu was elected to his fourth successive term as prime minister in April, two months after Israel's attorney general decided to indict him on corruption charges, pending a final hearing.