The police said officers were dispatched to the address after neighbors reported hearing crying come from the apartment.
When the officers entered the home, they discovered the girl bound and alone.
She was in poor health and suffering from neglect, the police said.
The girl was taken to the nearby Assaf Harofeh Medical Center for treatment.
An initial investigation showed that the girl's parents left the house with three other children, leaving the five-year-old alone.
The parents, who are in their 30s and 40s, were detained for questioning and the circumstances of the incident are being investigated.
The mother and father will appear in court Tuesday for a remand hearing.