Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan called Israel a "terror state" on Saturday as clashes continued between Israeli police and Palestinian youths at the al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem.
Erdogan said that Ankara had launched initiatives to mobilize international institutions.
Speaking at an event in Istanbul, Erdogan called on all Muslim countries and the international community to take "effective" steps against Israel, adding that those who remain silent were "a party to the cruelty there."
"The cruel Israel, terror state Israel is mercilessly and unethically attacking Muslims in Jerusalem," Erdogan said.
He added that Turkey had "immediately launched the necessary initiatives to get the United Nations, Organization for Islamic Cooperation and all relevant institutions to take action."
Most Turkish opposition parties echoed the condemnations, in a rare sign of unity.
There was no immediate response to a request for comment from Israel's foreign ministry. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said in a statement that law and order would be maintained in Jerusalem as would the right to worship.
Hundreds of people crowded outside Israel's embassy in Ankara and its consulate in Istanbul late on Friday, despite a nationwide COVID-19 lockdown, in protest of the violence in Jerusalem and at the al-Aqsa, Islam's third holiest site that sits atop Judaism's holiest site.
Turkey has condemned what it said was Israel's "systematic attempt at evicting Palestinians," referring to a long-running legal case over the rights to property in an East Jerusalem neighborhood inhabited by Palestinians and claimed by settlers.
Erdogan on Saturday called for the evictions to be halted; the High Court was due to rule on the issue on Monday.
Former allies Turkey and Israel have had a bitter falling-out in recent years despite strong commercial ties, mutually expelling ambassadors in 2018.
Ankara has repeatedly condemned Israeli activity in the West Bank and its treatment of Palestinians, and Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu has said any rapprochement between the two sides was unlikely as long as Israeli policies towards Palestinians continued.
On Friday, Cavusoglu held talks in Ankara with Palestinian Foreign Minister Riyad al-Maliki.