Aristides de Sousa Mendes

Portugal honors hero diplomat who saved thousands from Nazis

Aristides de Sousa Mendes saved countless lives from horrors of Nazi regime, including Jews, by defying Salazar dictatorship and issuing visas allowing them to escape; he was posthumously recognized as 'Righteous among the Nations' by Yad Vashem in 1966

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Published: 10.19.21, 17:02
Portugal paid tribute on Tuesday to former diplomat Aristides de Sousa Mendes, who defied the Salazar dictatorship to issue visas to tens of thousands of Jews and other refugees, saving them from the horrors of Nazi concentration camps.
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  • To honor him, a stone plaque was placed on the walls of the National Pantheon in Lisbon, which houses the tombs of major personalities from well-known fado singer Amalia Rodrigues to footballer Eusebio.
    3 צפייה בגלריה
    Aristides de Sousa Mendes
    Aristides de Sousa Mendes
    Aristides de Sousa Mendes
    (Photo: CC BY Wikipedia)
    In 1940, as Portuguese consul in the French city of Bordeaux, Sousa Mendes defied orders from dictator Antonio Oliveira Salazar and handed out visas to Jews and others escaping the Nazis.
    At the time, Portuguese diplomats had to request permission before granting the visas to Jews and other categories of applicants but Sousa Mendes decided to do it without asking, at great personal risk.


    "Persecution did not end with World War II... unfortunately history showed us that what Aristides de Sousa Mendes was confronted with is still a reality today," Prime Minister Antonio Costa said after the well-attended ceremony.
    "He is an inspiration for us to keep the same values alive: protecting the dignity of human beings, of lives, of those who seek protection," Costa added.
    The visa recipients were able to cross into Portugal and from there travel freely to other countries, such as the United States.
    3 צפייה בגלריה
    Nazis march on the champs Elysees Paris, France on August 2, 1940
    Nazis march on the champs Elysees Paris, France on August 2, 1940
    Nazis march on the Champs Elysees Paris, France on August 2, 1940
    (Photo: AP)
    When Salazar, who ruled Portugal with an iron fist for more than three decades, found out about Sousa Mendes' disobedience, he ordered him back to Lisbon and he was fired from the diplomatic service.
    "Today ... we are able to see the importance of what he did for humanity," researcher Margarida Ramalho said at the ceremony. "He was able to put himself in someone else's shoes."
    Sousa Mendes and his family struggled to make ends meet after he was forced out of his job and he died in poverty in 1954.
    In 1966, Israel’s national Holocaust memorial, Yad Vashem, recognized Sousa Mendes as a “Righteous among the Nations.”
    3 צפייה בגלריה
    שדרת חסידי אומות העולם ביד ושם
    שדרת חסידי אומות העולם ביד ושם
    The Garden of the Righteous Among the Nations at the Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial in Jerusalem
    (Photo: Shutterstock)
    Last year, he drew praise from Pope Francis, and last March the U.S. Senate in a motion saluted “the humanitarian and principled work” of Sousa Mendes.
    It wasn’t until the late 1980s that he earned recognition in Portugal, with authorities posthumously granting him accolades.
    In 2017, President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa bestowed Portugal’s highest honor, the Grand Cross of the Order of Liberty, on Sousa Mendes.
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