A statement on the ministry's website said its agents had arrested 12 people who had been preparing to enflame ethnic conflicts in Iran through sabotage and assassination.
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The statement said the group had links to Israel's spy agency, the Mossad, through a "reactionary" Arab country in the region.
It said they also had links with Britain and spy rings based on the Indian subcontinent, adding that authorities had confiscated a remarkable amount of weapons in the operation.
Iranian presidency candidates (Photo: AP)
The ministry's statement said the group had been instructed "to conduct terrorist acts ahead of, and in particular, on election day" as well as "creating ethnic and religious divisions" in restive areas of Iran.
It said the group had already "hit several targets in a town," and that "its main culprit was in contact with a headquarters in Britain". It did not elaborate.
Last month the Islamic republic said it had hanged two convicted spies, one found guilty of working for Israel, and the other for the Central Intelligence Agency.
The statement did not name the detainees or the time and place of the operation.
From time to time Iran announces that it has dismantled groups linked to the Mossad and western intelligence services.
AP contributed to the report
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